How do you like your eggs? Scrambled or Caged?

Australian farms raise a huge variety of livestock in lots of different settings. We rely on our farmers, and the animals they look after, for our meat, our eggs and our milk and dairy products such as cheese and yoghurt.

According to the National Farmer’s Federation, our farmers produce almost 93 percent of the food we eat each day in Australia and grow enough food to feed 600 people: 150 in Australia and 450 overseas. They also contribute $38 billion in export income to the economy and manage some 59 percent of Australia’s land.

Caged birdsSometimes the way farmers raise their animals is seen as unkind to the animals. Chickens and pigs, especially, might be raised in cages without much room to run around. This is sometimes called factory farming because the animals generally live in large factory-like sheds. While there once may have been good reasons for this, generally people believe animals are happier if they can roam around more freely.

Rather than being raised in cages, it is kinder to raise animals as “free range”.  Being free range means the animals live in open paddocks.  This lets them behave as they would normally.  For example, chickens love to scratch and peck looking for worms or shoots. Pigs like to wallow in mud and female pigs find grass and sticks to build a big nest to have their piglets in. They can do this in a paddock but not in a cage.

Farm freeMost farmers care passionately about their animals and their land. Often farming systems have developed because supermarkets want the food they buy from farmers, to always be the same. This is so that when you go to do your grocery shopping you know exactly what you are getting.

But making food this way means more and more control over how an animal is raised and less freedom for farmers and their animals to just do what comes naturally.

Free range animals and their produce are simply not as predictable as those raised in cages.

For example, free range eggs from chickens that have lots of room to forage in the paddock vary widely in shell colour and size.  But they are all delicious and if you choose an extra big egg you might even find a double yolker!

To help change how farmer’s raise their animals, we need to help them raise their animals outside of cages, while still making money. If the farmer’s can’t afford to produce our food then, maybe, there will be no food!

The best way to bring about change is at the supermarket. Supermarkets in Australia pretty much get to choose what we eat.  In turn, they tell the farmer what they will buy.  If growing an animal in a free range environment costs more, then we need to be prepared to pay that little extra.

eggsHere’s what you can do to help.

– Ask your teacher to dedicate some class time to teach others about it, or present to the class!

– Join a group which speak up for animals like Unleashed.

– Take action by joining a pledge like #makeitpossible.

– Ask your supermarkets where their food comes from and encourage them to stock the foods that come from farms that are kind to animals.

– talk to your local politicians who can change laws to protect farm animals.

Exclusive post: Possum Wars – Raising brushtail possums

Hi there, my name is Chris and I am a wildlife carer. I run a wildlife shelter with my partner Jodie, which means that the government wildlife department gives us a permit to handle and hold Australian native animals. Our shelter is unusual in that we live in an apartment close to the CBD. Luckily we have a big apartment! I do most of the rescuing, and tend to get calls mostly in the city or the North Western fringe from Carlton across to Port Melbourne. Jodie does a lot of the research into animal husbandry methods, which is important when raising orphaned babies as well as when we get injured animals. We are also registered with Wildlife Victoria, who operate a phone rescue service, and they call us whenever members of public find animals who require our assistance. This is the story of two brushtail possums who we rescued and who we raised up to adulthood. Their story is being featured on the upcoming documentary “Possum Wars” on the ABC on 15th December.

In September 2012 I got called out to the Carlton Gardens near the Exhibition Building, where a member of public had found a baby male brushtail possum beneath one of the magnificent fig trees. Baby possums of all varieties often get separated from their mothers during “baby season”, often during attack from predators. The brushtail possum was very cold when I got him from the man who had found him below the tree. Hypothermia can be fatal for all babies, so as I drove home I had him in my hand and blowing warm air on him. He was small enough to fit in one of my hands so he must have only been 150 grams. When I got him home I kept warming him and gave him some milk formula. I then noticed some objects in his mouth and when I looked in there found some small sticks! He had been crawling around in the dirt beneath the tree and had some got a mouthful of dirt and sticks. I cleaned this out and he got the name “Stix”.

Of course, since he had just lost him mum he was very sad.

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Next up, we got a call to go to a house in Fitzroy, where a couple had heard the sounds of scratching behind their kitchen rangehood. After breaking through the back of it, they found a small baby female brushtail who had fallen down the shute and got trapped there. We then tried to reunite this baby (who we later renamed “Beatle”) with her mother. Reuniting mothers and babies sometimes works with possums, but you need to find the right mother and then you almost hand the baby to her when she comes to investigate the calls of her baby. On this occasion, although other possums came forward to see why Beatle was calling, none seemed to be the mother. So we had to take her home with us.

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We always pair up orphaned possums so that they have a friend to grow up with and learn how to socialise. So Beatle and Stix became brother and sister. Because they were so small they were placed in a pink Rio basket with a heat pad. The possums sleep in small knitted pouches which we place on top of the heat pad. The Rio basket is then placed inside a small cage with branches to climb on. Although very small, we like to encourage them to learn to climb as early as they can, although they often need some supervision as they are very wobbly.

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Of course there are always some close calls when you are learning to climb. Especially if you are an adventurous brushtail possum like Stix.

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When the brushtails are very young and still missing their mums, a little bit of time needs to be spent with them each day giving them a little reassurance, at least until they are old enough to look after each other.

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One of the biggest things to learn is good eating habits, especially eating your greens! Although some flowers are offered to the brushtails, we try to ensure that a large part of their diet consists of native leaves such as eucalyptus and wattle.

In the first picture below you can see Beatle, and the next shot is of Stix. You can see how important their hands are for picking up their food. Ringtails similarly pick up their food with their front feet. Their tails are important to help anchor them while they are eating. Notice also that they have moved up to the next size in cages, which allows them to do more climbing given they are now probably over 400 grams in weight in these pictures.

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It should be noted that collecting the possum food every night is my job. I have a number of trees around the local area that I prune on a daily basis to ensure the freshest food. We have to put this up around their cages so that they get used to browsing. Picking the foliage and putting it up in the cages takes over one hour every night.

Although eating solids at this stage, they are still given their milk formula each day to ensure they keep putting on weight. At this stage of life, if they were with their mother they would still spend time in her pouch and still get milk from her. The milk formula (which is specially formulated for marsupials) gives them protein and assists the healthy development of their bodies. When small they are given milk bottles, but as they get older they are encouraged to lap. Once they have learned to lap we can then just put the milk out for them around the cage and they can drink themselves. Here is a photo of some “training laps”.

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Another thing that happens when the brushtails become young juveniles is that they are moved into their final large cage and put in a possum box. They sleep in the possum box now instead of their pouch, and when they are taken to be released will be taken with their box so they have a familiar home to go with them when taken to a new environment.

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This is a picture of Stix just before he was taken to his new home.

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Being orphans, Stix and Beatle essentially had no territory. It might be possible to take them back to where they come from if this is appropriate, but we generally don’t return orphaned babies back to any of the inner city gardens, due to the fact that these are usually quite crowded in terms of possums and there is usually no supply of native foods in those parks. In addition, we like to do a slow release with hand-reared possums, as they have no experience of being in the wild and need to develop their skills and confidence slowly. This usually involves keeping them in an outside aviary for several weeks, getting them used to eating the local foliage, and then leaving the door open so they can come and go until they no longer require the outside aviary, either for the shelter it provides or the supplementary food that is provided until they seem to have left permanently. Such a release strategy is not possible in the inner city gardens, nor is it generally possible in most people’s backyards, even if they agree to us bringing back a juvenile possum to put in their garden! The other option is a hard release, where you simply stick the possum up a tree in their possum box and hope for the best. We feel certain that such a strategy will have poor outcomes in terms of the possum’s long-term survival prospects.

In this case, we decided to release Beatle and Stix at a friend’s property outside of Melbourne. Our friend’s property is 100 acres, and there are some other possums there but plenty of room to accommodate a couple more. It is helpful to release the males particularly when they are juveniles as other males do not find them a threat to their territory. This gives the males a better chance to make their way in a foreign territory without getting into fights. It must be remembered that possums are very territorial. This is another reason against returning orphans to where they came from, as it is likely they will be forced to fight with other possums for territory.

The car trip out to their new home can be somewhat stressful for the possums, as they generally haven’t been in a car since we picked them up as babies. You can see Stix is somewhat upset here.

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Here we can see the new release aviary for Beatle and Stix. Their possum box is placed inside the cage to remind them of home. They seem to settle down quickly. You can see the ABC cameraman in the shot.

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Here you can see the property where Beatle and Stix now live, with the huge release aviary off to the right. They get moved to this aviary after adjusting to the smaller aviary first, where the woman managing the property (Kate) can keep a better eye on them and ensure they are doing well. Kate (in red) and Jodie can be seen in the foreground of this picture too.

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Kangaroos also use the property.

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Here is some of the foliage that is collected from the local area each day for Beatle and Stix to eat. They need to get used to this as this is what they will find when the go out on their own.

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Here is one of the last shots of Beatle and Stix that we took. Beatle is on the right. We went and visited them a few weeks and they were both doing well. We were there when the aviary door was left open and although it took a few days, they eventually left the safety of their aviary. They did hang around for a couple of weeks before moving on to possum boxes around the property.

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Beatle and Stix one year later

What is fantastic about a slow release on a friend’s property is that you get reports of your “babies”, and in this case, your baby’s babies! One year later, Beatle spends her time moving around possum boxes around the area, and Kate often finds her in one of these. Then she noticed one day that Beatle had a baby!

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We think given the timing that the father of the baby was probably Stix! Therefore we called the baby “Bix”. You can see Bix is yellow-coloured, just like Beatle was when she was a baby.

Unlike hand-reared orphans, babies in the wild grow up very quickly! Bix was soon sighted away from his mother, feeding on his own, although still not even a juvenile – you can see why they get separated from their mothers in the city, they are very independent! Kate found him a month later looking very big already and in his own box. He was somewhat wilder than the hand-reared possums and didn’t appreciate the intrusion.

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Over the last month, however, Kate has not sighted Beatle or Bix, so they have likely moved further afield into the deeper forest where there are more brushtails.

As for Stix, he moved into an old disused wooden shed several hundred metres away from his release aviary. There are possum boxes in the shed and Stix lives in one of these. Kate still gives him almonds now and again, although he is quite wild now so you cannot touch him. We don’t know if he and Beatle still see each other around the property, but it is likely.

So hopefully that is a bit of an insight into the story of Beatle and Stix, and now Bix, and some of the toils and rewards of caring for wildlife. It takes great commitment but hopefully we are giving these native animals a chance to lead a wild existence. Check out the story of Beatle and Stix in the upcoming ABC documentary on 15th December at 7.30pm. Here is a link to the show: www.abc.net.au/tv/programs/possum-wars/